16 Jun 2009

Capacitors

Capacitors are electronic components that have the ability save
electron-electron during the time that is not certain. Capacitors with different akumulator in
save electricity loads, especially not on the chemical changes occur in capacitors,
kapasitansi magnitude of a capacitor is expressed in farad. The other capacitors
electronics components is that you can store and release electrical load. Structure
a capacitor made from 2 pieces of metal plate separated by a material dielektrik.
The material commonly known dielektrik such as air, vacuum cleaner, ceramic, glass and others.
If both the ends of the metal plate is given the power voltage, the load-haul positive akan
gather on one leg (pole) metalnya and at the same time-load cargo
collected on the negative edge of a metal. Cargo can not be a positive flow towards
kutup negative edge and the cargo can not be negative towards the end of the kutup positive,
because of dielektrik separately by the non-conductive. Electrical load is "saved"
for there is no conduction in the edge-end of the legs. Free in nature, this phenomenon capacitor
occur at the time of load-haul terkumpulnya positive and negative in the cloud. The ability to
save on electricity load capacitor disebuat with kapasitansi or capacity.

Kapasitansi defenisi as the ability of a capacitor to be
accommodate cargo electrons. Coulombs on the 18 th century calculated that 1 coulomb = 6.25 x
1018 electrons. Michael Faraday and then make a capacitor that postulat akan
have kapasitansi of 1 farad when a voltage 1 volt electrons can load cargo
1 of coulombs. With the formula can be written:
Q = CV ... ... ... ... .... (1)
Q = load electrons in C (coulombs)
C = value in kapasitansi F (farads)
V = voltage in the large V (volt)
HC = C ½ V2 [Joule]
In the practice of making capacitors, kapasitansi calculated with the area know the metal plate
(A), distance (t) between the second metal plate (thick dielektrik) and constant (k) material dielektrik. With
formula can be written as follows:
C = (8.85 x 10-12) (k A / t) ... (2)

The principles of capacitors
If two or more of the plate, and is limited by isolation, and the plate
dialiri is the will power condenser (isolation of a second plate boundary
is called dielektrikum).
Materials used dielektrikum different naming so that the capacitor
based on material dielektrikum. Wide face of the plate and the distance the second dielektrikum
affect the value kapasitansinya plate.
On a series of capacitors that are not going wild. The nature of that mentioned
kapasitansi parasitic. It is the components in the adjacent lane
penghantar electricity near the coil-coil and the adjacent wire.
Capacity of a capacitor is a comparison between the number of electrical loads
with the capacitor voltage.
Description:
C = capacity in farad
Q = Muatan electricity in Coulomb
V = Voltage in Volt capacitor
If calculated with the formula C = 0.0885 D / d. But capacity in farad Piko
D = broad field plate which face each other and affect each other in units of cm2.
d = distance between the plate in cm.
When the plate voltage between 1 volt and the power load on the plate 1 coulomb, then
ability to store electricity is 1 farad.
In fact capacitors made with the unit under the 1 farad. Most of the capacitors
electrolyte made from 1mikrofarad until some milifarad. Variable capacitors have
physical size of a large but very small value kapasitansinya only up to hundreds of pikofarad.
Various capacitor materials and appropriate construction.
Capacitors as resistor values kapasitansinya have made and still have a
variables. Dielektrikum air capacitor, kapasitansinya changed from minimum to maximum value.
Variable capacitors are often encountered in our series of radio receiver and the penala
oscillator. Kapasitansi so that changes in the two sections together so used capacitors
ganda variables. Ganda variable capacitors are two capacitors with a variable player.
Based on dielektrikumnya capacitor is divided into several types, including:
1. ceramic capacitor
2. film capacitors
3. electrolyte capacitors
4. tantalum capacitor
5. paper capacitor
Electrolyte capacitors and tantalum capacitors are capacitors that have a polar or polar,
also often called by the name of polar capacitors. Capacitor film consists of several types, namely
polyester film, poly Propylene polysterene movie or film.
Characteristics of Various Types capacitor
Mica capacitors are able to receive thousands of volt voltage at a series of frequency
high. Series of capacitors for high frequency electron-electron filling plate-plate metal
and fill dielektrikumnya.
At the time of flow direction change electron-electron must increase dielektrikum. Changes direction
flow that occurred in capacitor terhalangi by obstacles kapasitif called hysterisis.
Capacitor nature in general:
a. Of the dc voltage is a very big obstacle.
b. Of ac voltage have resistansi the change in accordance with the frequency
work.
c. Akan ac voltage to cause phase shifting, where the flow precede 900
tegangannya.
Resistansi of an ac voltage on the capacitor is called reaktansi. symbol with xc

Fixed capacitors
Capacitors which have a fixed kapasitansi. Types of fixed capacitors, among others:
a. Polar capacitor
Groups electrolytic capacitor consists of a capacitor-capacitor materials dielektriknya
is a metal-oxide layer. Generally, a capacitor including a capacitor of this group
polar with the + and - in the body. Why can this capacitor has polarity, is
because the process of using electrolysis pembuatannya form kutup so positive and anoda
kutup negative cathode.
Has long been known as some metal tantalum, aluminum, magnesium, titanium,
niobium, zirconium and zinc (zinc) so that the surface can form a layer dioksidasi
metal-oxide (oxide film). Oxidation layer was created through the process of electrolysis, as in the
process penyepuhan gold. Metal electrode into the dye solution electrolit (sodium borate)
ago given the positive voltage (anoda) and solvent electrolit given negative voltage (cathode). Oxygen
in the electrolyte solution despite mengoksidai surface and metal plate. For example, if used
Aluminum, it will form a layer-aluminum oxide (Al2O3) on the surface.
Elco capacitor
Thus successive metal plate (anoda), layer-metal-oxide and electrolyte
(cathode) form a capacitor. In this layer-metal-oxide as dielektrik. From formula
(2) the large inverted kapasitansi proportionate with thick dielektrik. Metal-oxide layer is
very thin, so that the capacitor can be made so that kapasitansinya large.
Because the economic and practical reasons, most of the metal is widely used
aluminum and tantalum. Of the most affordable and is aluminum. To
obtain the surface area, aluminum plate material is usually digulung radial. So
in a way that the capacitor can be obtained kapasitansinya large. For example 100uF, 470uF,4700uF dan lain-lain, yang sering juga disebut kapasitor elco.
Bahan electrolyte pada kapasitor Tantalum ada yang cair tetapi ada juga yang padat. Disebut
electrolyte padat, tetapi sebenarnya bukan larutan electrolit yang menjadi elektroda negatif-nya,
melainkan bahan lain yaitu manganese-dioksida. Dengan demikian kapasitor jenis ini bisa memiliki
kapasitansi yang besar namun menjadi lebih ramping dan mungil. Selain itu karena seluruhnya
padat, maka waktu kerjanya (lifetime) menjadi lebih tahan lama. Kapasitor tipe ini juga memiliki
arus bocor yang sangat kecil Jadi dapat dipahami mengapa kapasitor Tantalum menjadi relatif
mahal.
Kapasitor non polar
Kapasitor non polar adalah kelompok kapasitor yang dibuat dengan bahan dielektrik dari keramik,
film dan mika. Keramik dan mika adalah bahan yang popular serta murah untuk membuat kapasitor
yang kapasitansinya kecil. Tersedia dari besaran pF sampai beberapa uF, yang biasanya untuk
aplikasi rangkaian yang berkenaan dengan frekuensi tinggi. Termasuk kelompok bahan dielektrik
film adalah bahan-bahan material seperti polyester (polyethylene terephthalate atau dikenal dengan
sebutan mylar), polystyrene, polyprophylene, polycarbonate, metalized paper dan lainnya. kapasitor
yang memiliki nilai kapasitansi lebih dari 1 μF Yaitu:
Kapasitor Tidak tetap (variable)
Kapasitor yang nilai kapasitansinya dapat berubah-ubah, nilai kapasitansi pada kapasitor
dapat dilihat dari kode yang terdapat pada fisik kapasitor. Sebagai contoh, jika tertera 105, itu
berarti 10 x 105 = 1.000.000 pF = 1000 nF = 1 μF. Nilai yang dibaca pF (pico farad). Kapasitor
lain ada yang tertulis 0.1 atau 0.01, jika demikian, maka satuan yang dipakai μF. Jadi 0.1 berarti
0.1 μF.
Nilai kapasitansi satu Farad menunjukkan bahwa kapasitor memiliki kemampuan untuk
menyimpan satu coulomb pada tegangan satu volt. Kapasitor pada power supply menggunakan
kapasitan sebesar 4700 μF. Sedang circuit pada radio sering menggunakan besar kapasitan di
bawah 10pF. Waktu yang dibutuhkan kapasitor untuk mencapai pengisian optimal tergantung
pada besarnya nilai kapasitansi dan resistansi. Formulanya :
T = R x C T = time ( waktu dalam detik)
R = resistansi (dalam ohm)
C = Kapasitansi (dalam Farad)
Formula ini merupakan waktu yang dibutuhkan untuk mencapai 63 % nilai tegangan pada sumber.
Yang perlu diperhatikan adalah kapasitor akan melewatkan arus AC bukan DC. Dalam rangkaian
elektronika ini merupakan hal yang penting.
5 Mario Nabil - Free Full Downloads Software, Games, Movies, Article: Capacitors Capacitors are electronic components that have the ability save electron-electron during the time that is not certain. Capacitors with diffe...

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